Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a complex neurological condition that affects millions of people worldwide. While there is no cure for MS, there is a growing interest in exploring complementary therapies to help manage its symptoms and improve overall well-being. Chiropractic care is one such alternative that offers a holistic approach to health. At Thrive Family Chiropractic, a leading clinic specializing in providing natural solutions for neurological conditions, we know how important relief for those with MS can be, and we are dedicated to providing the highest level of care.
What Is Multiple Sclerosis?
Often called MS, Multiple Sclerosis is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system mistakenly attacks the protective covering of nerve fibers, known as myelin, in the central nervous system. This leads to a wide range of symptoms, including muscle weakness, fatigue, numbness, tingling, and difficulties with coordination and balance. The severity and progression of MS symptoms can vary significantly from person to person, making it a challenging condition to manage.
Conventional medical treatments for MS typically involve medications aimed at managing symptoms and slowing the progression of the disease. While there is no cure for MS, these medications can be effective but do come with side effects.
Chiropractic Care for MS Symptoms
Chiropractic care, on the other hand, takes a different approach. It focuses on the alignment of the spine and the nervous system's function. The theory behind chiropractic care for MS is that misalignments in the spine, known as subluxations, can interfere with the nervous system's ability to communicate with the body properly. By correcting these misalignments, chiropractors aim to enhance the body's natural healing abilities and improve overall health and well-being.
Chiropractic care for individuals with MS involves a holistic and person-centered approach. Chiropractors like Dr. Shane Hoffman assess the spine and nervous system to identify any subluxations or areas of dysfunction that may be contributing to or exacerbating MS symptoms.
Through gentle chiropractic adjustments, chiropractors seek to restore proper spinal alignment, relieve nerve compression, and promote better communication between the nervous system and the rest of the body. While chiropractic care is not a cure for MS, many patients report experiencing a reduction in symptoms such as pain, muscle stiffness, and fatigue after undergoing chiropractic care.
Find Relief from MS at an Urbandale Chiropractor
At Thrive Family Chiropractic, you can expect a thorough evaluation of your condition and a personalized plan tailored to your unique needs. Our clinic utilizes state-of-the-art techniques and technology to provide gentle and effective chiropractic adjustments that can potentially alleviate MS symptoms and enhance your overall well-being.
If you or a loved one is living with Multiple Sclerosis and seeking alternative ways to manage symptoms and improve quality of life, consider the potential benefits of chiropractic care.
Take the first step towards relief and visit Thrive Family Chiropractic to explore how chiropractic adjustments and personalized care plans can help you thrive despite the challenges of MS. Contact them today to schedule a consultation and begin your journey to improved well-being and symptom management.
Stude, D.E., Mick, T. "Clinical presentation of a patient with multiple sclerosis and response to manual chiropractic adjustive therapies." Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 1993 Nov-Dec; 16 (9): 595-600. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8133195/
"What Is MS?" National Multiple Sclerosis Society. https://www.nationalmssociety.org/What-is-MS
As we embark on a new year, it's natural to reflect on our goals and aspirations, especially those related to our health and well-being. In 2024, why not make a commitment to invest in your health like never before? While there are countless ways to prioritize your well-being, one often overlooked but highly effective avenue is chiropractic care. With the help of an experienced team like Thrive Family Chiropractic, you can make significant strides toward thriving in life in 2024.
The Value of Investing in Your Health
Your health is your most valuable asset, and it affects every aspect of your life. When you invest in your physical well-being, you increase your energy levels, improve your immune system, and reduce the risk of chronic illnesses. This, in turn, allows you to live a more active and fulfilling life.
But good health isn't just about the absence of physical ailments; it's also about mental and emotional well-being. When you prioritize your health, you enhance your mood, reduce stress, and improve your overall quality of life. A healthy mind and body go hand in hand.
Investing in your health can extend your lifespan and improve the quality of your later years. By adopting healthy habits and seeking preventive care, you can reduce the risk of age-related diseases and enjoy a vibrant and active life well into your senior years.
Why Choose Chiropractic Care?
Many people turn to a Des Moines chiropractor for pain relief, whether it's from chronic conditions like back pain or from acute injuries that impact day-to-day living. Chiropractors like Dr. Shane Hoffman use non-invasive techniques to address the root cause of pain, providing natural and drug-free solutions that promote healing and recovery.
This care focuses on the spine and nervous system, which play a central role in your overall health. Misalignments in the spine can disrupt the flow of nerve signals, leading to a wide range of health issues. Regular chiropractic adjustments ensure proper spinal alignment, supporting optimal nervous system function.
Thrive Family Chiropractic takes a holistic approach to health, considering the interconnectedness of the body's systems. By addressing the root causes of health issues, chiropractors promote not only pain relief but also improved overall well-being.
Start Your 2024 Health Journey Today
If you're looking to invest in your health in 2024, Thrive Family Chiropractic is here to support your journey. Our experienced chiropractors prioritize your well-being and take a comprehensive approach to your health needs, while personalizing care for you and your concerns.
Investing in your health in 2024 is a decision that will yield benefits for years to come. Don't wait to prioritize your well-being. Take the first step by scheduling a visit to Thrive Family Chiropractic, your trusted Urbandale chiropractor. Our dedicated team is ready to partner with you on your journey to optimal health and well-being. Make this year the year you thrive – physically, mentally, and emotionally. Contact us today and experience the difference chiropractic care can make in your life. Your path to a healthier you begins here.
Littrell, J. “The mind-body connection: not just a theory anymore.” Social Work in Health Care, 2008; 46 (4): 17-37. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18589562/
Navid, M.S., Lelic, D., Niazi, I.K., Holt, K., Mark, E.B., Drewes, A.M., Haavik, H. “The effects of chiropractic spinal manipulation on central processing of tonic pain - a pilot study using standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA).” Scientific, Reports, 2019; 9: 6925. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6502880/
When it comes to children's health and well-being, parents are always seeking ways to ensure their little ones thrive in every aspect of life. While most people associate chiropractic care with addressing physical ailments, it can also play a crucial role in enhancing children's behavior. At Thrive Family Chiropractic, we place your child’s well-being above all and look forward to helping your family with our expert, holistic care.
Behavior Difficulties in Children
Many parents are surprised to learn that the health of their child's spine can have a significant impact on their behavior. The spine houses the central nervous system, which controls every function in the body, including mood, emotions, and behavior. When the spine is misaligned, it can disrupt the flow of important nerve signals, potentially leading to a range of behavioral issues in children.
Common behavioral issues in children include the following:
How Chiropractic Care Can Help
Chiropractic care focuses on correcting spinal misalignments, known as subluxations, to promote optimal nervous system function. When children are adjusted by a neurological chiropractor, it can lead to significant improvements in behavior and emotional well-being.
Additionally, chiropractic care can reduce tension in the body, which is particularly beneficial for children who may be dealing with stress and anxiety. A relaxed body is more likely to exhibit calmer and more regulated behavior. Better spinal alignment can alleviate discomfort and improve sleep quality. When children sleep well, they are more likely to be well-rested, emotionally stable, and better behaved during the day.
Improved Focus and Concentration
Children under chiropractic care experience improved focus and concentration, which can positively impact their academic performance and overall behavior. When their nervous system is functioning optimally, they can process information more efficiently and stay engaged in tasks for longer periods. This can lead to better school performance and reduced frustration, contributing to improved behavior at home and in the classroom.
Stress Reduction and Emotional Well-Being
Stress and emotional well-being are closely connected to behavior in children. Chiropractic care can play a pivotal role in reducing stress and promoting emotional balance. By aligning the spine and enhancing nervous system function, chiropractic adjustments help children better manage stress and anxiety. This can lead to fewer emotional outbursts, improved self-regulation, and a more positive overall mood.
Finding Care for Your Child
Our Urbandale chiropractor, Dr. Marcus Woodburn, is dedicated to helping your child thrive in all aspects of life. If you're seeking solutions to behavioral challenges or looking to enhance your child's overall well-being, chiropractic care may be the answer. Our team is here to provide gentle and compassionate care tailored to your child's specific needs.
Thrive Family Chiropractic is your trusted partner in nurturing your child's well-being. If you're interested in exploring the benefits of chiropractic care for your child, we invite you to contact us today and schedule a consultation. Together, we can help your child thrive and achieve their fullest potential.
Alcantara, J., Davis, J. “The chiropractic care of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a retrospective case series.” Explore (NY), 2010 May-Jun; 6 (3): 173-82. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20451152
Alcantara, J., Lamont, A.E., Ohm, J., Alcantara, J. “The Quality of Life of Children Under Chiropractic Care Using PROMIS-25: Results from a Practice-Based Research Network.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 2018 Apr; 24 (4): 378-384. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29260883/
In the pursuit of overall well-being, we often focus on physical health and sometimes overlook the profound connection between our physical and mental states. Chiropractic care, primarily known for its role in addressing musculoskeletal issues, may hold a surprising key to enhancing mental health. Not only is the mind connected to the body, but you may find you feel better mentally when you receive regular care from an Urbandale chiropractor like Dr. Shane Hoffman!
The Mind-Body Connection
To understand the potential link between chiropractic care and mental health, it's crucial to recognize the intricate mind-body connection. Our nervous system, housed primarily within the spine, plays a central role in regulating both our physical and mental functions. Misalignments or subluxations in the spine can interfere with the nervous system's ability to function optimally, impacting not only physical health but also mental well-being.
When the spine is misaligned, it may hinder the transmission of signals from the brain to the rest of the body, affecting mood-regulating chemicals and neurotransmitters like serotonin and dopamine. Correcting these misalignments through chiropractic adjustments may help restore the balance in the nervous system, potentially alleviating symptoms of mental distress.
Stress Reduction and Improved Mood
Stress is an omnipresent factor in modern life, and its effects on mental health are well-documented. Chiropractic care can play a significant role in stress reduction. When the spine is properly aligned, it allows the nervous system to function optimally, reducing the body's stress response. This, in turn, can lead to a more relaxed and balanced state of mind.
Additionally, chiropractic adjustments can help release endorphins, the body's natural "feel-good" chemicals. These endorphins promote a sense of well-being and happiness. Many individuals report an improved mood and reduced feelings of anxiety after chiropractic adjustments.
Holistic Care for Mind and Body
Chiropractic care is inherently holistic, recognizing that mental and physical health are deeply interconnected. Chiropractors focus on restoring the body's natural ability to heal itself, addressing not only the symptoms but also the underlying causes of health issues.
By adopting a holistic approach that encompasses both physical and mental aspects of well-being, chiropractic care supports individuals in achieving a balanced and harmonious state of health.
If you're seeking a natural and holistic approach to enhancing both your physical and mental health, Thrive Family Chiropractic is here to help. Our dedicated team of Des Moines chiropractors understands the vital connection between the spine, nervous system, and mental well-being.
At Thrive Family Chiropractic, we prioritize your overall well-being and whole-body health. Our approach is patient-centered, tailored to your unique needs and goals. Whether you're dealing with physical discomfort, stress, anxiety, or simply aiming for a higher level of vitality, our chiropractors will work with you to develop a personalized care plan.
By addressing the mind-body connection, reducing stress, and taking a holistic approach to health, chiropractic care can be a valuable asset in your journey to achieving mental and physical balance. If you're ready to explore the benefits of chiropractic care for your mental health, visit Thrive Family Chiropractic and take the proactive step toward a healthier, happier you.
Littrell, J. “The mind-body connection: not just a theory anymore.” Social Work in Health Care, 2008; 46 (4): 17-37. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18589562/
Slimmen, S., Timmermans, O., Mikolajczak-Degrauwe, K., Oenema, A. “How stress-related factors affect mental wellbeing of university students A cross-sectional study to explore the associations between stressors, perceived stress, and mental wellbeing.” PLOS One (Public Library of Science), 2022 Nov 7; 17 (11). https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36342914/
Aging comes with its own set of challenges, from mobility issues to chronic pain and beyond. While traditional healthcare often relies on medication to manage these symptoms, chiropractic care presents a less invasive and more holistic option. Many seniors have found significant relief and improvement in their quality of life through the care of a Leland chiropractor like Dr. Marcus Woodburn. Chiropractic care offers a non-invasive and holistic approach to some of the most common health challenges faced by the elderly. By enhancing mobility, supporting immune function, and offering complementary therapies, chiropractic care can significantly improve the quality of life for seniors. Aging may be inevitable, but living with pain and limitations doesn't have to be.
Health Concerns in Older Populations
As people age, they often encounter a range of health issues that can severely impact their quality of life. Some of the most prevalent concerns include arthritis, chronic back pain, and osteoporosis. Additionally, seniors often face difficulties with balance and coordination, making them more prone to falls and injuries. Respiratory issues and weakened immune function are also common, leaving them vulnerable to infections and other health complications. This is why it’s critical that seniors focus on the prevention of issues and maintaining good health overall.
Enhancing Mobility and Reducing Pain
One of the most common complaints among the elderly is joint pain and stiffness. This can severely limit their mobility, making daily activities a struggle. A chiropractor's primary role is to adjust misaligned joints and vertebrae, which can substantially improve mobility and alleviate pain. Spinal adjustments can lead to better posture and balance, both of which are essential for living well during the golden years. Improved mobility not only enhances the ability to perform daily tasks but also reduces the risk of falls, a major concern among seniors.
Supporting Immune Function and Overall Vitality
Elderly individuals often face a weakened immune system, making them more susceptible to illnesses. Chiropractic adjustments have been shown to support immune function by reducing spinal misalignments that can interfere with the nervous system. The nervous system plays a crucial role in regulating immune response, so optimizing its function can have far-reaching benefits on overall health. Many seniors who undergo regular chiropractic treatment report fewer sick days and a greater sense of well-being.
Because chiropractic improves mobility, it helps many older adults maintain their independence and allows them to live active lifestyles. Gone are the days of aging in a chair in a nursing home. Seniors nowadays—particularly those under chiropractic care—are living out their best years playing pickleball, walking miles each day, and enjoying life to the fullest due to their improved health and vitality.
If you or a loved one is experiencing the health challenges that come with aging, consider exploring the benefits of chiropractic care. Visit Greatest Potential Chiropractic for a personalized consultation and treatment plan tailored to meet the unique health needs of seniors. Experience the difference that holistic care can make in achieving a healthier, more active, and fulfilling life in your golden years.
A well-functioning body relies on a strong foundation, and that foundation lies in the intricate design of the spine. The natural curves of the spine’s three sections—cervical, thoracic, and lumbar—play a critical role in maintaining optimal health. Understanding why these curves exist, how they should be maintained, and what happens if they are too deep or shallow are important to understanding if you could benefit from the care of a Des Moines chiropractor.
Structural Support and Balance
The spine's curves are far from accidental; they are purposeful adaptations that provide structural support and balance for the body. There are three curves throughout the spine, and each curve has a specific role. The cervical curve, located near the neck and shoulders, supports the weight of the head while maintaining flexibility. The thoracic curve accommodates the ribcage and protects vital organs, and the lumbar curve carries the upper body's weight and enables fluid movement. When these curves work together, they distribute the body's weight evenly, minimizing strain and reducing the risk of injury.
Nervous System Function
The spine's significance to the body is its role as the guardian of the spinal cord, a crucial component of the central nervous system. This system controls all communication throughout the body, allowing your brain to work with your body and ensure that there is no miscommunication causing pain or poor motion.
The natural spinal curves ensure the spinal cord's protection while facilitating seamless communication between the brain and the body. However, any misalignment can potentially disrupt nerve function, leading to a host of health conditions and injuries. Proper alignment, achieved through chiropractic care, can foster efficient nerve communication and promote overall well-being.
Posture and Movement
The ideal posture and effortless movement are achievable when there is proper spinal curvature. The spine's curves maintain an upright posture with minimal exertion when correctly aligned. Misalignments can result in poor posture, discomfort, and restricted motion.
This is where chiropractic care plays a pivotal role. By restoring and maintaining the natural spinal curves, chiropractors help individuals maintain proper posture, move freely, and live without the constraints of misalignment-related discomfort.
Caring for Your Spine
Led by Dr. Shane Hoffman, Thrive Family Chiropractic embodies expertise and dedication in the pursuit of optimal spinal curvature and health. With a commitment to enhancing the well-being of individuals and families, our approach encapsulates the essence of comprehensive chiropractic care.
When you visit us at Thrive Family Chiropractic in Urbandale, we will take the time to understand your individual spine and its ideal shape. Through assessments and manual exams, our chiropractors can identify any misalignments and create a tailored care plan that meets your needs.
Our goal is not just to resolve any current issues, but also to help you achieve and maintain optimal spinal health and reduce the risk of future problems. This focus on overall well-being and prevention is key to our holistic approach.
Contact us today to schedule your first appointment and begin working towards better spinal health today.
Kuo, Y., Chung, C., et al. “Association between spinal curvature disorders and injury: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.” BMJ Open, 2019 Jan 17; 9 (1): e023604. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30782710/
Smythe, A., Jivanjee, M. “The straight and narrow of posture: Current clinical concepts.” Australian Journal of General Practice, 2021 Nov; 50 (11): 807-810. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34713281/
Herniated discs, also known as slipped or ruptured discs, are a common spinal condition that can cause significant pain and discomfort. The spine is made up of a series of vertebrae with cushion-like discs in between them. When a disc becomes herniated, its inner gel-like material protrudes through the outer layer, putting pressure on nearby nerves and causing various symptoms. While herniated discs can be a source of distress, understanding the condition and seeking appropriate care from an Urbandale chiropractor can lead to relief and an improved quality of life.
Understanding Herniated Discs: Causes and Symptoms
Herniated discs can occur due to various factors, including age-related wear and tear, repetitive stress on the spine, lifting heavy objects improperly, or sustaining a sudden injury. As we age, the discs lose some of their water content, making them less flexible and more prone to herniation. In some cases, a sudden twisting or lifting motion can put excessive pressure on a disc, causing it to herniate.
The symptoms of a herniated disc can vary depending on the location and severity of the herniation. Common signs include:
The Role of Chiropractic Care in Managing Herniated Discs
Chiropractic care offers a non-surgical and drug-free approach to managing herniated discs. Chiropractors like Dr. Shane Hoffman at Thrive Family Chiropractic are experts in the musculoskeletal system and the spine. They can diagnose and treat herniated discs through a combination of specialized techniques.
Spinal adjustments are a cornerstone of herniated disc treatment. By carefully realigning the spine, chiropractors can alleviate pressure on the affected discs and nerves. This can lead to a reduction in pain and promote the body's natural healing process.
Chiropractors may also use decompression therapy to relieve pressure on herniated discs. This technique gently stretches the spine, creating negative pressure within the discs, which encourages the retraction of the protruding material.
Chiropractic Care for Herniated Discs
If you are experiencing symptoms of a herniated disc, seeking prompt and appropriate care is crucial for a swift recovery. Dr. Shane Hoffman at Thrive Family Chiropractic in Urbandale is dedicated to helping patients find relief from pain and improve their overall well-being.
At Thrive Family Chiropractic, the focus is on providing individualized care that addresses the root cause of the problem rather than just managing symptoms. Dr. Hoffman believes in empowering his patients with knowledge and self-care strategies to support their recovery and prevent future issues.
If you or a loved one is dealing with symptoms of a herniated disc, consider visiting Thrive Family Chiropractic to take the first step towards a pain-free and thriving life.
Dydyk, A.M., Massa, R.N., Mesfin, F.B. “Disc Herniation.” StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28722852/
Schoenfeld, A.J., Weiner, B.K. “Treatment of lumbar disc herniation: Evidence-based practice.” International Journal of General Medicine, 2010; 3: 209–214. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2915533/
When we think of chiropractic care, we often associate it with adults seeking relief from back pain or injuries. However, chiropractic care offers numerous benefits for infants and children as well. From promoting healthy development to addressing common childhood conditions, chiropractic care can play a vital role in optimizing the well-being of the youngest members of our families. At Thrive Family Chiropractic, we are devoted to helping your whole family feel better and thrive.
Promoting Healthy Development with Chiropractic Care
Just like in adults, chiropractic care is an effective way to keep children’s bodies healthy, starting at birth. By focusing on the body’s alignment and supporting the nervous system, care from an Urbandale chiropractor can be beneficial for children of all ages.
The nervous system plays a crucial role in the overall development and function of infants and children. Chiropractic adjustments for children focus on removing any interference or restrictions in the spine, allowing the nervous system to function optimally. By ensuring proper nerve flow, chiropractic care helps support healthy growth and development in children.
This development often includes meeting certain milestones, like the ability to lift their head, crawl, and walk. All these milestones require proper alignment and muscle coordination, which can be supported by chiropractic care.
Addressing Common Childhood Conditions
Along with general health, chiropractic care can also be used to manage a variety of conditions that are common among young children. Some common examples include the following:
Visiting a Family Chiropractor
When it comes to the well-being of your child, it's essential to seek specialized care from someone who understands the unique needs of infants and children. Thrive Family Chiropractic is a leading pediatric chiropractic clinic dedicated to providing safe, gentle, and effective care for children of all ages.
Our team of skilled Des Moines chiropractors specializes in pediatric chiropractic care and is trained in techniques specifically designed for the delicate bodies of infants and children. By utilizing gentle adjustments and other non-invasive methods, we help restore proper spinal alignment, support healthy nervous system function, and promote optimal development.
If you want to provide your child with the best possible start in life and optimize their health and development, consider scheduling a visit to Thrive Family Chiropractic. With our expertise in pediatric chiropractic care, we can help address any concerns you may have and support your child's well-being naturally and holistically. Don't wait to give your child the gift of optimal health. Contact Thrive Family Chiropractic today and embark on a journey toward a healthier, thriving child.
Alcantara, J., Alcantara, J.D., Alcantara, J. “The chiropractic care of infants with colic: a systematic review of the literature.” Explore (NY), 2011 May-Jun; 7 (3): 168-74. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21571236/
Vallone, S.A., Miller, J., Larsdotter, A., Barham-Floreani, J. “Chiropractic approach to the management of children.” Chiropractic and Osteopathy, 2010; 18: 16. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2887887/
When we talk about our health, we often use the phrase “I feel…” to describe its state. You may feel sick or well or feel like some certain part of you is in pain. This can be a helpful way to communicate concerns, but it also means that the way we treat problems is focused on removing the feeling. For example, if you feel sick, you may take an anti-congestion medication which removes the feeling but not the root cause of the issue.
Chiropractors like Dr. Shane Hoffman take a different approach, hoping to understand why these things are happening and treating the underlying dysfunction that caused them. This approach is not only more natural, but it’s also more effective for achieving long-term relief.
Understanding Feeling and Function
When an Urbandale chiropractor refers to the dichotomy between feeling and function, this is meant to illustrate the body’s complex relationship with the nervous system. To understand why this is so important, you should first understand that we have three main parts of the nervous system, and each plays an important role in the body.
Recognizing the difference between feeling good and functioning properly is the key to understanding chiropractic care. Symptoms mean that the dysfunction has passed a certain threshold, but it is possible (and highly likely) for underlying issues to be present before then. This means it is important not only to treat issues at their root, but also proactively and often.
Chiropractors Improve Function
While many people visit a chiropractor due to pain, it is actually a great way to proactively prevent problems from occurring. Many studies show that this care is an effective way of treating any condition that roots back to the nervous system, from common back pain to more serious conditions like diabetes.
When you visit Thrive Family Chiropractic, we will spend your first visit discussing your health and your concerns. This involves both an in-depth conversation and medical history, as well as physical exams that help Dr. Shane Hoffman understand your spine. With this information, we can begin to craft a comprehensive plan of care aimed at improving function throughout your body.
Contact us today to schedule your first appointment and begin taking a proactive and complete approach to your health. Not only will you begin to experience improved function, but you will also feel better when your body is working optimally.
Haneline, M.T., Cooperstein, R. “Chiropractic care for patients with acute neck pain: results of a pragmatic practice-based feasibility study.” Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, 2009 Dec; 8(4): 143–155. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2786244/
Williams, R.W., Herrup, K. “The Control of Neuron Number.” The Annual Review of Neuroscience, 11:423–453 (1988). Last revised Sept 28, 2001. http://www.nervenet.org/papers/NUMBER_REV_1988.html#1